 # 1.4 Multiplication

### MULTIPLICATION: A SHORTCUT TO REPEATED ADDITION

Multiplication is a simpler way of doing repeated addition. Suppose Ron can do 30 push-ups in one minute. If he maintained a steady pace, how many push-ups could he do in five minutes? You could add 30 + 30 + 30 + 30 + 30, or you could multiply 30 × 5 to arrive at the answer of 150 push-ups. Some words and symbols used in multiplication are timesthe product of, the "×" sign, or a dot like "•". Sometimes numbers that are being multiplied will be put in parentheses (30)(5)=150.

Example 1 - Each person on your six-person crew is carrying five quarts of water. How many quarts of water does your crew have in total? The multiplication problem would be 5 × 6 = 30.
This process is the same as adding 5 six times.

When larger numbers are involved, multiplication is much easier than the repeated addition.

Example 2 - Multiply 17 by 63. Step 1. Multiply the top number by the number in the ones spot, which is 3.
17 × 3 = 51

Step 2. Multiply by the number in the tens spot, or 60, by putting a "0" in the ones place and multiplying 17 × 6.
17 × 60 = 1020

Step 3. Add these together.
17 × 63 = 51 + 1020 = 1071

Example 3 - Multiply 374 × 261.

Follow the same steps as shown above.

Step 1. Multiply 374 by 1.

Step 2. Multiply by 60. Put a "0" in the ones place and then multiply 374 by 6.

Step 3. Multiply by 200. Put "0" in the ones and tens places and then multiply 374 by 2.

Step 4. Add the numbers.
374 + 22,440 + 74,800 = 97,614

The answer to 374 × 261 is 97,614.

### MULTIPLYING SIGNED NUMBERS

When multiplying two numbers with the same sign, the answer will be a positive number. A positive number times a positive number always gives a positive answer.
5 × 5 = 25
4 × 8 = 32
2 × 6 = 12

A negative number times a negative number always gives a positive answer.
-5 × (-5) = 25
-5 × (-10) = 50
-9 × (-7) = 63

A positive number times a negative number always gives a negative answer.
5 × (-5) = -25
-70 × 8 = -560
24 × (-2) = -48

## Practice Quiz

Select the correct answer(s) from the questions below:

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