RT-130, Wildland Fire Safety Training Annual Refresher (WFSTAR)


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An introduction to the history and intent of LCES (Lookouts, Communications, Escape Routes, and Safety Zones) and a review of its components with music and fire images, with an emphasis on the connection between LCES components and their relation to the Standard Firefighting Orders and the Watch Out Situations.
Category: Operations
Core Component(s): Entrapment Avoidance
Estimated Delivery Time: 30 minutes; Video Length: 3:19

Video Information

This video is also available as a download.  (Size 621MB)

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Suggested Classroom Activity

Discussion Points

  • The Standard Firefighting Orders were first developed in 1957. The recommendation in the original report states that the Fire Orders “are to be committed to memory by all personnel with fire control responsibilities.” What do you and your crew/unit do to help each other remember and understand the 10 Standard Firefighting Orders and 18 Watch Out Situations?
  • Originally, there were 13 Watch Out Situations, with the last 5 being added in 1987. If you could add one more Watch Out, what would it be and why?
  • The Standard Firefighting Orders, Watch Out Situations, and LCES are just three of the many tools firefighters must use to manage risk and to aid in decision making. What other tools might you use, and where can you find them?
  • Many of the official risk management and decision making tools firefighters use today were first developed by personnel in the field. Are there of these tools you use personally, within your crew, or on your local unit?


It is recommended that the facilitator and/or students refer to the following additional resources to support and guide discussion in the classroom:




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