When determining strategy and tactics, avoid situations where firefighters may become entrapped. Consider the following discussion points related to escape routes and safety zones.
- Discuss the three types of safety zones and describe examples.
- The burn/black
- Natural features
- Constructed sites
- Discuss the guidelines for size and distance separation to avoid radiant heat injury.
- Four times the maximum flame height (20 foot-flame height x 4 = 80 foot-radius from firefighters)
- Size based on amount of resources and equipment
- Discuss heat impact factors that will affect the guidelines for distance separation.
- Convection heat from wind and terrain features
- Location relative to fire spread
- Reburn potential of fuel in safety zone
- Discuss how firefighters have a right to know the location of their escape routes and safety zones at all times.
- Discuss how firefighters have a right to ask for clarification when faced with unclear instructions or fear of the unknown.
- Describe a basic procedure for identification of effective escape routes and safety zones.
Incident Management Situation Report (IMSR)
Incident Response Pocket Guide (IRPG), PMS 461
NWCG Standards for Helicopter Operations, PMS 510
RT-130, Wildland Fire Safety Training Annual Refresher (WFSTAR)
Interagency Standards for Fire and Fire Aviation Operations (Red Book)
Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center
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