When determining strategy and tactics, avoid situations where firefighters may become entrapped. Consider the following discussion points related to escape routes and safety zones.
- Discuss the three types of safety zones and describe examples.
- The burn/black
- Natural features
- Constructed sites
- Discuss the guidelines for size and distance separation to avoid radiant heat injury.
- Four times the maximum flame height (20 foot-flame height x 4 = 80 foot-radius from firefighters)
- Size based on amount of resources and equipment
- Discuss heat impact factors that will affect the guidelines for distance separation.
- Convection heat from wind and terrain features
- Location relative to fire spread
- Reburn potential of fuel in safety zone
- Discuss how firefighters have a right to know the location of their escape routes and safety zones at all times.
- Discuss how firefighters have a right to ask for clarification when faced with unclear instructions or fear of the unknown.
- Describe a basic procedure for identification of effective escape routes and safety zones.
Incident Management Situation Report (IMSR)
10 Standard Firefighting Orders, PMS 110
18 Watch Out Situations, PMS 118
10 & 18 Poster, PMS 110-18
NWCG Incident Response Pocket Guide (IRPG), PMS 461
RT-130, Wildland Fire Safety Training Annual Refresher (WFSTAR)
Interagency Standards for Fire and Fire Aviation Operations (Red Book)
Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center