When determining strategy and tactics, avoid situations where firefighters may become entrapped. Consider the following discussion points related to escape routes and safety zones.
Discuss the three types of safety zones and describe examples.
- The burn/black
- Natural features
- Constructed sites
Discuss the guidelines for size and distance separation to avoid radiant heat injury.
- Four times the maximum flame height (20 foot-flame height x 4 = 80 foot-radius from firefighters)
- Size based on amount of resources and equipment
Discuss heat impact factors that will affect the guidelines for distance separation.
- Convection heat from wind and terrain features
- Location relative to fire spread
- Reburn potential of fuel in safety zone
- Discuss how firefighters have a right to know the location of their escape routes and safety zones at all times.
- Discuss how firefighters have a right to ask for clarification when faced with unclear instructions or fear of the unknown.
Describe a basic procedure for identification of effective escape routes and safety zones.
- 10 & 18 Poster, PMS 110-18
- 10 Standard Firefighting Orders, PMS 110
- 18 Watch Out Situations, PMS 118
- Interagency Standards for Fire and Fire Aviation Operations (Red Book)
- NWCG Incident Response Pocket Guide (IRPG), PMS 461
- NWCG Standards for Helicopter Operations, PMS 510
- RT-130, Wildland Fire Safety Training Annual Refresher (WFSTAR)
- Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center
Have an idea or feedback?
Share it with the NWCG 6MFS Subcommittee.