Map and Field Measurements

  1. Map Scale & Map Distance
  2. Slope Estimation
  3. Unit Conversions
  4. Average Latitude for Each State
  5. Declination

Map Scale & Map Distance

The map scale is printed in the map legend. It is given as a ratio of inches on the map corresponding to inches, feet, or miles on the ground. For example, a map scale indicating a ratio of 1: 24,000 (in/in), means that for every 1 inch on the map, 24,000 inches have been covered on the ground. Ground distances on maps are usually given in feet or miles.

ScaleRep. fractionMap (in/mi)Map (in/ch)Feet per map inch
1:253,440253.440.250.003121120
1:126,720126.720.500.006310560
1:63,36063.3610.01255280
1:62,50062.501.010.01275188
1:31,68031.6820.0252640
1:24,000242.640.0332000
1:21,12021.1230.03751760
1:15,84015.8440.051320
1:7,9207.9280.1660

Firefighter Math Map Scale; Firefighter Math Spread/Map Distance

Slope Estimation

Slope (Degrees)Slope (Percent)
10°17.6%
20°36.4%
30°57.7%
40°83.9%
45°100%
50°119.2%
60°173.2%
70°274.7%
80°567.1%
90°

Standard LANDFIRE slope themes are represented in units of degrees (°). Many locally produced landscapes over the year’s stored slopes in percent (%). It is much easier to estimate slope in percent, estimating the elevation change and the horizontal distance and calculating the ratio. BehavePlus, and BEHAVE tools before that, default to slope input in percent.

Firefighter Math Slope Percent and Slope Angle

To convert from slope in degrees (°) to slope in percent (%), a scientific calculator is needed.

  1. Enter the slope in degrees.
  2. Press the Tangent button.
  3. Multiply the result by 100 to get slope in percent.

Unit Conversions

Online and downloadable apps are available from Apple (OSX & IOS), Google Play (Android), and MS Windows for making unit conversions for distance, temperature, area, volume, weight, time, energy and other items.

Metric UnitMultiply byEnglish UnitMultiply byMetric Unit
Meters/min3.28084Ft/min0.3048Meters/min
Meters/min2.982582Ch/hr0.33528Meters/min
Meters/min0.03728Miles/hr26.8224Meters/min
Kg/m34.460897Tons/ac0.22417Kg/m3
Kg/m30.062lb/ft316.129Kg/m3
Tonnes/ha0.44609Tons/ac2.2417Tonnes/ha
Kw/m0.28909BTU/ft/sec3.4592Kw/m
Meters0.049709Chains20.117Meters
Meters0.3048Feet3.28084Meters
Millimeters0.0393701Inches25.4Millimeters
kilometers0.62137miles1.6093kilometers
hectares2.4711acres0.40469hectares

Firefighter Math Conversions reference provides several tables and conversion factors for the user.

Average Latitude for Each State

StateAverage Latitude
Alabama33
Alaska65
Arizona35
Arkansas35
California38
Colorado39
Connecticut41
Delaware39
Florida28
Georgia33
Hawaii21
Idaho45
Illinois40
Indiana40
Iowa42
Kansas39
Kentucky37
Louisiana31
Maine45
Maryland39
Massachusetts42
Michigan43
Minnesota46
Mississippi32
Missouri39
Montana47
Nebraska41
Nevada39
New Hampshire44
New Jersey40
New Mexico34
New York43
North Carolina35
North Dakota47
Ohio40
Oklahoma35
Oregon44
Pennsylvania41
Rhode Island41
South Carolina34
South Dakota44
Tennessee36
Texas32
Utah39
Vermont44
Virginia37
Washington47
West Virginia38
Wisconsin44
Wyoming43

Declination

Global Reference

Calculator

US/UK World Magnetic Model - Epoch 2015.0 Main Field Declination (D)

(East Declination in Red, West in Blue; subtract from true compass reading)

recent map of magnetic declination for field navigation.

 

Page Last Modified / Reviewed: 
2019-03-04